Tuesday, August 7, 2012

Optional parameters interop: C# - F#

Both C# and F# support optional parameters. But since they're implemented differently, how well do they play together? How well do they interop?

Here's I'll analize both scenarios: consuming F# optional parameters from C#, and consuming C# optional parameters from F#.

For reference, I'm using VS2012 RC (F# 3.0, C# 5.0)

Calling C# optional parameters in F#

Let's start with some C# code that has optional parameters and see how it behaves in F#:

public class CSharp {
    public static string Something(string a, int b = 1, double c = 2.0) {
        return string.Format("{0}: {1} {2}", a, b, c);
    }
}

Here are some example uses of this function:

var a = CSharp.Something("hello");
var b = CSharp.Something("hello", 2);
var c = CSharp.Something("hello", 2, 3.4);

Now we try to call this method from F# and we see:

csharp-optional

Uh-oh, those parameters sure don't look very optional. However, it all works fine and we can write:

let a = CSharp.Something("hello")
let b = CSharp.Something("hello", 2)
let c = CSharp.Something("hello", 2, 3.4)

which compiles and works as expected.

Calling F# optional parameters in C#

Now the other way around, a method defined in F#, using the F# flavor of optional parameters:

type FSharp = 
    static member Something(a, ?b, ?c) = 
        let b = defaultArg b 0 
        let c = defaultArg c 0.0 
        sprintf "%s: %d %f" a b c 

We can happily use it like this in F#:

let a = FSharp.Something("hello")
let b = FSharp.Something("hello", 2)
let c = FSharp.Something("hello", 2, 3.4)

But here's how this method looks like in C#:

fsharp-to-csharp

Yeah, there's nothing optional about those parameters.

What we need to do is to implement the C# flavor of optional parameters "manually". Fortunately that's pretty easy, just mark those parameters with the Optional and DefaultParameterValue attributes:

open System.Runtime.InteropServices

type FSharp = 
    static member Something(a, [<Optional;DefaultParameterValue(null)>] ?b, [<Optional;DefaultParameterValue(null)>] ?c) = 
        let b = defaultArg b 0 
        let c = defaultArg c 0.0 
        sprintf "%s: %d %f" a b c 

Why "null" you ask? The default value should have been None, but that's not a compile-time constant so it can't be used as an attribute argument. Null is interpreted as None.

These attributes don't affect F# callers, but now in C# we can write:

Console.WriteLine(FSharp.Something("hello"));
Console.WriteLine(FSharp.Something("hello", FSharpOption<int>.Some(5)));

So we have optional parameters but we still have to deal with option types when we want to use them. If you find that annoying or ugly, you could use FSharpx, in which case FSharpOption<int>.Some(5) turns into 5.Some() .

The astute reader will suggest an overload just to handle the C# compatibility case. Alas, that doesn't work in the general case. Let's try and see what happens:

type FSharp = 
    static member private theActualFunction (a, b, c) =
        sprintf "%s: %d %f" a b c

    static member Something(a, ?b, ?c) =
        let b = defaultArg b 0
        let c = defaultArg c 0.0
        FSharp.theActualFunction(a,b,c)

    static member Something(a, [<Optional;DefaultParameterValue(0)>] b, [<Optional;DefaultParameterValue(0.0)>] c) =
        FSharp.theActualFunction(a,b,c)

Note that I moved the "actual working function" to a separate method, otherwise the second overload would just recurse. But we have a duplication in the definition of the default values. Still, the real problem shows when we try to use this in F#:

let d = FSharp.Something("hello", 2, 3.4)

This doesn't compile as F# can't figure out which one of the overloads to use.

Conclusion

F# has no issues consuming optional parameters defined in C#.

When writing methods with optional parameters in F# to be called from C#, either add the corresponding attributes and deal with the option types, or add a separate non-overloaded method. Or forget the optional parameters altogether and add overloads, just as we all did in C# before it supported optional parameters.

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